Hair shampoos are the common hair care products that help in removal of dirt, oil, dandruff, skin particles, pollutants, etc., called as sebum that slowly accumulate the scalp.
These products should have rich foaming action and rinse out easily. A good shampoo removes the sebum by managing the hair.
There are various forms of hair shampoos available from clear liquid to thick paste.
The main ingredient of the hair shampoo is detergent.
The concentration used will depend on the shampoo type and individual detergent.
Hair shampoos are mixture of various chemicals and water. The important ingredient in shampoos is surfactant, which cleans the sebum from the hair and scalp. Sebum, oil that is secreted by the hair follicle, protects the structure of protein from damage of hair.
There are different types of surfactants in hair shampoos, which include anionic surfactants, cationic surfactants, nonionic surfactants, and amphoteric surfactants.
Anionic (negatively charged ion) surfactant gives a lot of lather and detergency in the hair shampoo. These are not expensive and rinse easily from the hair.
The ingredients like ammonium, sodium, and triethanolammonium lauryl sulfate and laureth are seen in anionic surfactant shampoos, which are harsh and irritate the scalp [Dry Scalp].
Cationic (positively charged ion) surfactants are hardly used in high concentration. These are considered to be dangerous to the eyes when used in high quantities.
They are not rinsed easily and form the basis of conditioning. The mildness of the hair shampoo depends on the surfactant used.
Nonionic (no charged ion) surfactants include laureth-3 or laureth-4, cocamide DCA, or coco glucosides. These can lead to scalp irritation. These surfactants are used in combination with primary cleansers to modify the action.
Amphoteric (both positively and negatively charged ion) surfactants are mostly used in baby hair shampoos as these surfactants are gentle and will not burn the eyes.
Surfactant in hair shampoos or soaps function is to influence cleansing, foam, condition, viscosity, aesthetic appear, etc. Before choosing any hair shampoo, it is good to know the ingredients (surfactant) used in it.
You can find how gentle and mild your hair shampoo is based on the surfactant used. If the surfactant is ammonium lauryl sulfate then the shampoo is very very harsh, if the surfactant is ammonium laureth sulfate, the shampoo is harsh, but better than the ammonium lauryl sulfate.
Likewise, if the surfactant is sodium lauryl sulfate, this also is very harsh but better than both the above. If the surfactant is sodium laureth sulfate, it is gentle with great pick. TEA laureth sulfate and TEA lauryl sulfate both show good pick.
Apart from this, you will need to follow some tips on how to use hair shampoo. When you use conditioning hair shampoos you should not use hair conditioner, use simple cleansing shampoos, and rinse your hair thoroughly and also dry thoroughly your hair.
There are different types of shampoos, which include clarifying shampoo, moisturizing shampoo, revitalizing shampoo, dandruff shampoo [Get rid of Dandruff], two in one shampoo, swimmer’s shampoo, etc. Chose the hair shampoo depending on your hair type.